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This page is to provide cultural links from many sources.  Some links may already be provided on other pages at this site (such as languages, dance, etc.).

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The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990

The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-644) is a
truth-in-advertising law that prohibits misrepresentation in marketing of
Indian arts and crafts products within the United States. It is illegal to
offer or display for sale, or sell any art or craft product in a manner that
falsely suggests it is Indian produced, an Indian product, or the product of
a particular Indian or Indian Tribe or Indian arts and crafts organization,
resident within the United States. For a first time violation of the Act, an
individual can face civil or criminal penalties up to a $250,000 fine or a
5-year prison term, or both. If a business violates the Act, it can face
civil penalties or can be prosecuted and fined up to $1,000,000.
Under the Act, an Indian is defined as a member of any federally or State
recognized Indian Tribe, or an individual certified as an Indian artisan by
an Indian Tribe.

The law covers all Indian and Indian-style traditional and contemporary arts
and crafts produced after 1935. The Act broadly applies to the marketing of
arts and crafts by any person in the United States. Some traditional items
frequently copied by non-Indians include Indian-style jewelry, pottery,
baskets, carved stone fetishes, woven rugs, kachina dolls, and clothing.
All products must be marketed truthfully regarding the Indian heritage and
tribal affiliation of the producers, so as not to mislead the consumer. It
is illegal to market an art or craft item using the name of a tribe if a
member, or certified Indian artisan, of that tribe did not actually create
the art or craft item.

For example, products sold using a sign claiming "Indian Jewelry" would be a
violation of the Indian Arts and Crafts Act if the jewelry was produced by
someone other than a member, or certified Indian artisan, of an Indian tribe
Products advertised as "Hopi Jewelry" would be in violation of the Act if
they were produced by someone who is not a member, or certified Indian
artisan, of the Hopi tribe.

If you purchase an art or craft product represented to you as Indian-made,
and you learn that it is not, first contact the dealer to request a refund.
If the dealer does not respond to your request, you can also contact your
local Better Business Bureau, Chamber of Commerce, and the local District
Attorney's office, as you would with any consumer fraud complaint. Second,
contact the Indian Arts and Crafts Board with your written complaint
regarding violations of the Act.

Before buying Indian arts or crafts at powwows, annual fairs, juried
competitions, and other events, check the event requirements on the
authenticity of products being offered for sale. Many events list the
requirements in newspaper advertisements, promotional flyers, and printed
programs. If the event organizers make no statements on compliance with the
Act or on the authenticity of Indian arts and crafts offered by
participating vendors, you should obtain written certification from the
individual vendors that their Indian arts or craftwork were produced by
tribal members or by certified Indian artisans.


Diverse group shares goal: Save burial ground


Monday, May 03, 2004

By Elizabeth Shaw, 810.766.6311

GAINES TWP. -- Three years ago, they were strangers: a Clare man in search of his roots, a former Flint attorney, a Swartz Creek history buff and two University of Michigan-Flint anthropology students.
Their paths converged in an abandoned Gaines Township field overgrown by weeds and brush just south of the Swartz Creek city limits.

Today, Friends and Descendants of Native American Cemeteries is breathing new life into a decades-long effort to save a well-known but long-neglected American Indian burial ground.
Incorporated last year, the new nonprofit group is working to acquire the site through a private donation. If successful, it will be the group's first preservation project.
Deep in the heart of the field, a rusted and bent wire fence encloses a circle of ancient pines rearing up toward the sky like an outdoor cathedral, their massive trunks leaning toward the rising sun from years of westerly winds.
The ground is marked only by a thick green blanket of periwinkle, once cherished for its magic and medicinal powers. But Richard Ritter of Clare can tell you of a Chippewa chief buried there beneath the pines and periwinkle, along with many of his family and tribal ancestors.
"Because they were meant to be in a natural state, many burial grounds are considered abandoned when, in fact, they're not. It's just the difference in cultures. That's why so many have ended up sold or lost one way or another," said Ritter, who traces his lineage back to David Fisher, whose father, Kawgogezhic, was one of the Chippewa chiefs who signed the 1819 and 1836 treaties that took the last tribal lands in Genesee County.
Fisher was a signer of the 1866 treaty that established the Isabella County reservation still in existence today.
Kawgogezhic and Fisher purportedly are buried at the Gaines Township site.
"All we're pushing for is to get it safe from taxation so it can be preserved," said Ritter. "It's family, and you've got to protect that heritage. Knowing where you come from is everything. That hits right to the center of your soul."
Early records
Swartz Creek Area Historical Society records indicate the burial ground existed long before 1860, when former Michigan Gov. Henry Crapo founded a dairy empire outside what had been Miller's Settlement.
Family memoirs refer to Crapo setting aside the "ancient burying place" for tribal descendants who remained on the farm as laborers. The last recorded burial in 1933 was of Lyman Chatfield, a tribal descendant who married into the Fisher line.
When Crapo Farm was sold in 1955, much of it was developed into subdivisions in Gaines Township and Swartz Creek. But the burial ground and other parcels fell into a lengthy property dispute. At one time, there was even talk of locating an amusement park there.
In 1966, local Rotary and Kiwanis clubs erected a 300-square-foot fence around 17 recorded graves. But the monuments vanished, and several graves were tampered with. A 1977 Shiawassee Gazette article noted that human bones were frequently plowed up in adjacent fields.
In the 1970s, former Flint attorney Ron Douglas headed the Genesee Indian Center's unsuccessful bid to acquire the site.
"We had the funds, but they refused to sell it to us," said Douglas, a former tribal judge who now lives in Mount Pleasant. "Then the center folded when state funding dried up and didn't get reestablished until last fall. By the time I left Flint, I'd just lost track of it.
In 1983, local tribal descendants cleaned up the site to maintain its visibility and protect it from further vandalism, but they lacked funds to buy it.
In 1999, a Grand Blanc couple unwittingly acquired it along with several other parcels through a delinquent tax sale.
"They'd bought it as an investment without knowing it was a burial ground and couldn't be developed, so they were pretty much stuck with it," said Gaines Township Supervisor Paul Fortino, whose board refuses to allow a building permit for the site. "Actually, it should never have been put on the tax rolls in the first place."
The current effort
That's where things remained until three years ago, when Ritter journeyed to Swartz Creek in search of his family roots.
At the same time, local historical society founder Bill Morgan was restoring the city cemetery, where many of the area's original white settlers were buried. Efforts to trace the grave of an infant named Fisher led him to the ancient burial ground.
"I was dismayed to find the site in great disrepair, with some people claiming the headstones had been removed and others claiming there had never been any," said Morgan. "When I found out the property had gone into tax sale years ago, I became obsessed with getting it back into the hands of the Indians."
Morgan followed the paperwork trail to the current owners, then tried to enlist the aid of NAGPRA officials, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. They put him in touch with Douglas and Ritter.
UM-Flint anthropology students Frank and Nicole Raslich soon joined the effort.
"Protecting burial grounds can be very sensitive issues because of fears that one tribe is trying to expand its territory. That's why Friends and Descendants isn't affiliated with any one tribe," said Frank Raslich, a Saginaw Chippewa tribal member whose academic focus is Mesoamerican culture.
"It isn't just Chippewa buried there because of all the intertribal marriage. We're working for the good of the burial ground itself."
Raslich said he hopes to get permission to scan the site and surrounding fields with ground-penetrating radar.
"We want to locate the graves and identify the number of people buried there. We also hope to resolve the controversy over just how big an area the original burial ground covered."
But in the end, time itself could prove to be the project's worst enemy. The group is currently tied up in the lengthy legal process to gain tax-exempt status, necessary to receive donations.
The owner of the land, who asked not to be identified, told The Flint Journal she hasn't committed to the project yet but "the possibility of a donation is under discussion."
Meanwhile, the group discovered Friday an animal had unearthed part of a human skull, which was lying exposed on the ground. There's no way to know what further damage might yet occur.
"A cemetery is legally protected and regulated, but a burial ground has no protection except you can't dig up remains without state permission," said Douglas. "That means unless you dig up remains, you can do anything you want with it. That's the tragedy we're hoping to prevent."

© 2004 Flint Journal. Used with permission


Code Talker bill introduced

Washington — On May 18, Sen. Tim Johnson, D-S.D., joined Sen. James
 Inhofe, R-Oka., to introduce the Code Talker Recognition Act.
 A similar act was introduced in the 108th Congress.

If approved, the legislation would express the gratitude of Congress and
 the entire nation by recognizing American Indians for their military service.
The bill also would authorize the presentation of commemorative Congressional
medals to Indians who served as Code Talkers during
20th century foreign conflicts. It also would allow for production
of duplicate medals for sale to the general public.
Johnson said Code Talkers have served with honor in all of America's
wars, beginning with the Revolutionary War on through World War II.

"Native Americans make up a higher percentage of servicemen and women
 in the armed forces than any other ethnic group in America," Johnson said.




Smudging is a common practice among Native Americans for the cleansing
of energy through the burning of sage, tobacco, and sweet grass. These
substances emit certain smells that are pleasing and help convey the
prayers of the people: "Sweet grass grows high in the Rocky Mountains,
and is known as the grass that never dies. It is a gift from the
Creator, and one of the great smells for reminding us of the mountains
and the open air. Sage is the cleanest smell of the desert, and is also
given to us by the Creator. Tobacco is yet another gift. Our thoughts
and prayers are carried on its smoke. It is a visual representation of
our thoughts and prayers being carried, more so because it carries the
two great smells of the mountain and desert."

The smudging itself is performed by mixing the sweet grass, sage, and
tobacco in a bowl, usually an abalone shell, burning the ingredients,
and then blowing or fanning the smoke over a person. Often, an eagle
feather fan is used, as Native Americans believe that the prayers and
thoughts contained in the smoke are carried to the Creator on the wings
of eagles, which fly the highest and are in direct communication with
the Creator.

Smudging plays a central role in traditional healing ceremonies because
it is believed that once negative energies are cleared out, a sense of
peace and relaxation take over, putting spiritual difficulties to rest.
Joseph explains why this aspect of healing is so important: "Western
medicine primarily looks at physical causes, and often does not consider
the spiritual well being of the individual. You have to understand that
there’s a big difference between healing and curing. Curing is a quick
fix and will only be long-term if the spiritual site is fixed." Smudging
is often combined with other modalities that get to the root of illness,
such as talking to a medicine person, taking long walks, fasting,
praying, and engaging in purification ceremonies.


The Medicine Wheel, can be a profound way of knowledge and path of
healing. The Medicine Wheel is life in a circle showing our connection
to all things and our way back to center, our way home. Medicine means
everything that heals and brings wholeness or holiness. Our medicine is
our unique gift and contribution to the world.

The Medicine wheel contains the four directions. The Medicine wheel
enables us to understand the multitudinous powers that create and effect
life in the third dimension of material reality.

In the beginning of time, Creator sat the children around in a circle on
Mother Earth and told each race about its individual responsibilities
and its roles in the great sacred hoop of life. The sacred teachings
were divided into four equal parts and one given to each tribe. The four
root races were then sent to the four directions, each had been given a
special knowledge of creation. The Yellow People were entrusted with
Spirit and the element of fire. The Black People were given Soul
corresponding to the element of water. The White People learned about
the Mind and the element of air. And the Red People had Body and the
element of earth.

Red is for NORTH, to honor our Brothers, the Buffalo (Buffalo calves are
red). Black is for WEST, the direction of the thundercloud which brings
rain to Mother earth. White is for SOUTH, the direction the Spirit goes
when it leaves the body. Yellow is for EAST, the direction of the Sun in
Father Sky which brings warmth and causes green things to grow on Mother

The Medicine wheel has four Direction, each direction offering it's own
lessons, color, and animal guide. There are to paths shown which cross
in the center, at which point for me is the heart. (for when you work
from your heart, you can reach all directions.) The path from East to
West is the path of spirits, (the Blue Road) the path from South to
North is our physical Walk (the Red Road). East - beginnings, purity,
family, innocence, amazement of Life South - youth - passions of life,
friendships, self-control West - Adulthood - solitude, stillness, going
inside oneself, reflection North - Place of the Ancient Ones who have
gone over - place of wisdom Above - Freedom of mind, body, spirit below
- Nurturing, Mother, life

The direction of the South is the Path of the Inner Child - to access
that part of ourselves that uses the faith, trust and innocence that we
had as children to make our way through life. From the South we are able
to see things with greater clarity and to begin to understand our own
individual natures. The South is where our journey through life begins -
with the knowing of self. The quality embraced by the South is trust and
innocence. It is enjoying the experience of discovery, finding joy in
new knowledge and letting go of fears and false values. The totem of the
South is the Coyote (and sometimes the Mouse). Coyote is the trickster -
he shatters illusions and laughs at himself. His lessons may sometimes
be harsh, but they do bring us knowledge of ourselves. This teaches us
to examine our own feelings and emotions - and to be guided by them. The
element of the South is water. This refers not so much to the physical
quality of water, or even its ability to cleanse, but to the essence of
water - that it flows through life. Here we are asked to allow our
emotions to flow freely. The color of the South is red - the color of
life force (blood), health and vitality. The Kingdom associated with the
South is the Plant Kingdom. To align yourself with the healing
properties of the South - walk amongst this kingdom. Touch the plants,
touch the trees - share your energy with them, and they will share their
energy and knowledge with you. The time period of the South is the past.
Emotions that we are holding on to, that are blocking us, are from the
past. This is where we need to heal. Through the South we become as
children - we understand, and we heal.

The medicine of the West is that of Bear and Owl who bring us the
'dream' and remind us that night and the dark is half of life. 60% of
life is spent awake, about 40% is used up in sleep. Dreaming is the art
of using that time usefully as well as waking time, and of bringing the
two into relationship, opening the doorway between the worlds. The
direction of the West represents introspection - looking for knowledge
within ourselves. Here is what we find that we need to change to make
progress in our lives. This is the emphasis of the West - change and
transition. The direction of South was our beginning of knowing who the
"self" is. The direction of the West deepens this knowing through dreams
and visions of the future. The quality embraced by the West is that of
change and transition. Here we begin to understand our life patterns,
what our lessons have been, and what we need to let go of to continue
our learning. The totem of the West is the Bear. Bear brings us strength
and connection to Mother Earth, and represents the quality of
introspection. Bear seeks truth. The power of the Bear is the power of
knowing, the power that allows one to enter dreamtime and walk the path
of questing for answers - the internal path. The element of the West is
earth. Earth is passive, receptive and nurturing. A deep connection with
earth is needed to bring ourselves into balance with Universe. The color
of the West is Black. Not the black of "nothingness", but the black of
"all things". It is the color of mystery and of the unconscious. The
Kingdom associated with the West is the Mineral Kingdom. This is the
kingdom that holds and controls energy. It holds knowledge of our past
and our future. Through the mineral kingdom we heal ourselves by finding
our connection with both the past and the future. The time period of the
West is the present. The present is the only place that we can invoke
change. Our future is created by the beliefs that we hold in the
present. Changing those belief patterns changes our future. The season
of the West is Autumn - a time of gentle change brought about through
turning inward. Use the time of the West wisely to see how your current
goals are affecting your future.

The quality embraced by the North is knowledge and wisdom. This is the
sense of understanding that one gains through living - through personal
experience. Wisdom comes from applying this knowledge to our lives in a
meaningful manner. The totem of the North is the Buffalo. Buffalo energy
is that of abundance - in supporting the sustaining of life through the
giving of itself for food, clothing and more, and of prayer - the giving
of thanks for all that has been received. The element of the North is
Air. Air is movement and freedom - the clearing of thoughts and the
carrier that allows us to manifest our dreams. Air represents the mind.
The color of the North is White - that of balance and purity - the
combination of all colors. White represents ones highest aspirations.
The Kingdom associated with the North is the Animal Kingdom. We learn
from the soul of animals in two ways - by watching how they interact
with their environment, and by allowing them to connect with us on a
soul level. The time period of the North is the Future. We create our
future in many ways - by the decisions we have made and actions we have
taken in the past, by how we interact in the present, and by what we are
destined to do with those future energies. The season of the North is
Winter - a time of preparation and regeneration. Use the time of the
North to find your soul's purpose for this lifetime.

The direction of the East represents spirituality and enlightenment. The
direction of South was our beginning of knowing who the "self" is. The
direction of the West deepened this knowing through dreams and visions
of the future. The quality embraced by the East is that of
enlightenment. Through the East we begin to see where we are - we have
an inner knowing that comes from our understanding that we are united as
one with all things. Here we find the courage to extend our visions - to
see the broader picture of our lives. Here we learn perspective. The
totem of the East is the Eagle. The Eagle soars high and has the ability
to see great distances. Eagle receives inspiration from Great Spirit,
and brings balance into our lives. The element of the East is Fire. Fire
is the radiant energy of transformation. Fire contains the great power
of expansion. The color of the East is yellow. The Kingdom associated
with the East is the Human Kingdom. Here we see the dual nature of man -
child of earth reflecting the immortal being of Great Spirit. The time
period of the East is momentary. The power of a moment lies in the
quality of that moment - that is why it is important to live "in" the
moment. The season of the East is Spring. Spring is the awakening of new
life. It is becoming aware of what lies within ourselves and what lies
outside of ourselves. Use the time of the East to see where you are
headed in your life.


This ceremony helps re-purify ones self. Pre-contact there was not the
abuse of alcohol by Natives) brought about. And due to alcohol and the
loss of connection to our culture spouse and child abuse illness, and
suicide is epidemic among Native people. We desperately need to find our
way back to traditional ways of living, and the Sweat Lodge is one
answer. Not only can it draw out the poison of alcohol but also the
behavior that goes along with drunkenness, through intense heat and
steam. Physically they sweated out the toxins inside the Sweat Lodge.
With the help of Medicine Men and Women they also repaired the damage
done to their spirits. It is a place of refuge and healing but also a
place to get answers and guidance by asking spiritual entities, totem
helpers, the Creator and Mother Earth and seeking within yourself.

The spirits are awakened in the stones by heating them in a sacred fire
until red-hot. Then they are swept clean by means of a cedar or sage
bundles. One at a time they are placed into the Sweat Lodge in a shallow
pit. The ceremony begins in the lodge. At this time water is poured and
keeps pouring until he is told by the spirits to stop. Then he begins
his prayers, songs and chants. The steam can be overwhelming but helps
cleanse our bodies, minds and spirits and reconnects us to the world.

During the purification of one's spirit inside an Inter-Tribal Sweat
Lodge, all sense of race, color and religion should be disregarded.
After all, in the Mother's womb we are all the. As the steam rises so do
our senses and we begin to see things that are messages from another
world (presenting itself to you). It is the job of the Sweat Lodge
keeper to decipher these messages and deliver them to the person whom it
is meant for. Some Tribes permit sweats to be conducted with mixed
Genders but many only allow same sex ceremonies.

Healing also begins here for all sorts of ailments such as physical,
emotional, directional and diseases. One at a time all the people inside
get an opportunity to speak, pray and ask for forgiveness from the
Creator and the people they hurt. As they go around the circle, they
must tell who they are, so the Creator can recognize them. At this time,
they must also tell where they are from and who their family is.

One type of Sweat Lodge is made up of poles of willow lashed together
with hide and covered by blankets, skins, or other materials all
intertwined with sweet grass, sage, pine or cedar boughs and other
medicines. Nowadays the skins can be replaced with a simple heavy gauge
canvass sheet. The entrance must always point directly to the East. This
has very significant spiritual value, for the Sun lives in that
direction and has immense power. There is no set size for a sweat Lodge.

When you are called upon to go into the Sweat Lodge you will have some
tobacco to offer the fire. At this time, you would say a prayer for
someone or ask a question. You then would crawl into the lodge and take
your place after stating who you are. Bringing personal sacred items is
allowed but some rules apply. Items such as: Eagle feathers whistles and
medicine pouches are allowed and welcomed. You cannot bring anything
that is not natural into the Sweat Lodge, such as: watches, ear rings,
gold, silver, eye glasses, false teeth and any female on her time.

This purification ritual has different rules depending on Tribes. Be
sure to check with the hosts holding the sweat, unfortunately you may
not be able to participate, but your prayers and support are still
important. Drink water during the break and rub sage on your body. This
is a very strenuous activity and care should be take to ensure you are
ready both physically and mentally for the challenge.

From: Andre Cramblit <>
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Crazy Horse monument fundraising begins

Associated Press Writer

CUSTER, S.D. - Nearly six decades have passed since work began on the
Crazy Horse Memorial, intended as a colossal carving of the Sioux
warrior, arm outstretched toward his ancestral homeland, astride a
granite stallion more than two football fields long.

When it's finished - and no one is predicting when that will be - the
three-dimensional sculpture will be 563 feet high and 641 feet long.
It will be taller than the Washington Monument, and so large that the
four presidential heads on Mount Rushmore, 17 miles away, would fit in
the nine-story-high warrior's head.

But the $17 million spent so far on the mountain has allowed only a
small portion of the sculpture to be finished. Now, for the first
time, a national fundraising drive has been quietly started in hopes
of accelerating the pace.

The massive monument was suggested in 1939 by Sioux Indian Chief Henry
Standing Bear, who asked Boston-born sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski to do
the work. The self-taught sculptor pondered the project for years, and
began sculpting the mountain on June 3, 1948. He doggedly pursued it
for the rest of his life, rejecting federal money and other government

"Korczak always believed that if it were done by government, it would
never be finished the way it should be," explained development
director Fred Tully.

Ziolkowski died in 1982, but his widow, Ruth, and seven of their 10
children have since continued the labor of love.

It takes grit to chip away at the granite monolith, and the Ziolkowski
family is not short on that trait: More than 8 million tons of rock
have been stripped from the mountain in the past 57 years. An
estimated 4 million tons more must be removed to complete the project.

The face was finished in time for the 50th anniversary of the project
in 1998, shifting the focus to the 22-story-tall horse's head.

Ruth Ziolkowski, 78, still is actively involved and has no intention
of retiring. Visitors frequently ask when it will be done.

Her stock answer: "We don't honestly know."

Some view the sculpture with facetious humor: "Be back in 100 years to
see it completed," a Canadian tourist wrote in the Crazy Horse guest
book recently.

Repeat visitors, however, note headway is being made.

"Big change since our 1974 visit. Keep it up," a couple from Dover,
Del., wrote.

Crazy Horse Memorial is managed by a nonprofit foundation largely
dependent on donations from those who have visited or are are familiar
with the enterprise. A nationwide fund drive has been considered in
the past but never attempted. But now, Tully said, large donations are
being sought from foundations, corporations and individuals.

The $26.5 million campaign will not be formally announced until next
year as part of an attempt to create more interest in the project, he
said. Getting a good chunk of the money in hand before then is
imperative, he added.

"If we start at zero before the official announcement, people will
hold back and won't give because they're not sure if we're going to
make it," he says. "If we can start with half or more than half of the
money, people will want to get in on it."

While the carving is the focal point, educating visitors about Indians
and their culture is its true mission, Ziolkowski says. "The mountain
carving is necessary because that's what brings people here."

The 1,000-acre complex includes an Indian museum and cultural center,
and Korczak Ziolkowski also envisioned a university and medical
training center at the site. Those projects are still planned.

One new feature this year: a laser light show cataloguing Indian
contributions to society. The evening show turns the flank of the
mountain into a 500-foot screen of colorful animations and still

Rollie Noem, chief operating officer at Crazy Horse, said three of the
world's largest slide projectors will light up the memorial.

Recently visiting the memorial on a crisp morning, Don and JoAnn
Lathrop of Steamboat Springs, Colo., were impressed by the sculptor's

"To do that kind of work with such dedication, knowing he may never
see it finished is very inspirational," JoAnn Lathrop says. "The fact
that the family is still working on it shows their dedication and
respect for him."

The memorial is, ironically, just a few miles from Custer, which was
named for Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer. Crazy Horse and his Sioux,
Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors defeated Custer and his 7th Cavalry in
the 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Crazy Horse wanted to preserve Indian values and traditions and wanted
nothing to do with the government and its treaties. But the Indian way
of life quickly disappeared when gold was found in the Black Hills in
1874. The rush of white prospectors who descended on the Black Hills
in violation of treaties, and the Indian resistance to them, was what
led eventually to the Little Bighorn.


On the Net:

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Cherokee Prophecies

Excerpts from a talk at the 1986 Continental
Indigenous Council, Fair Banks Alaska
By Lee Brown, Cherokee

There was a cycle of the mineral, the rock. there was a cycle of the plant. Now we are in the cycle of the animal coming to the end of that and beginning the cycle of the human being. When we get into the cycle of the human being, the highest and greatest powers that we have will be released to us.
At the beginning of this cycle of time, long ago the Great Spirit made an appearance and gathered the peoples of this earth together, and said to the human beings, " I'm going to send you to four directions, and over time I'm going to change you to four colors, but I'm going to give you some teachings, and you will call these the Original Teachings; when you come back together with each other, you will share these so that you can live and have peace on mother earth, and a great civilization will come about. During the cycle of time, I'm going to give each of you two stone tablets. When I give you those stone tablets, don't cast them upon the ground. If any of the sisters and brothers cast their tablets on the ground, not only will human beings have a hard time, but almost the earth itself will die."

And so He gave each of a responsibility, and we call that Guardianship. To the Indian people, the red people, He gave the Guardianship of the Mother Earth.
We were to learn during this cycle of time the teachings of the earth, the plants that grow from the earth, the foods that you can eat, and the herbs that heal so that, when we came back together with the sisters and brothers, we could share this knowledge with them. Something good was to happen on earth.

To the South He gave the yellow race of people the Guardianship of the Wind. They were to learn about the sky and breathing and how to take within ourselves for spiritual advancement. They were to share that with us at this time.

To the west He gave the black race of people the Guardianship of the Water. They were to learn the teachings of the water, which is the chief of the elements, being the most humble and the most powerful. The elders have told me that the black people would bring the teachings of the water.

To the North He gave the white race of people the Guardianship of the fire. If you look at the center of many things they do, you will find the fire. They say a light bulb is the white man's fire. If you look at the center of a car you will find a spark. If you look at the center of the airplane and the train you will find the fire. The fire consumes and also moves. This is why it was the white sisters and brothers who began to move upon the face of the earth and reunite us as a human family.

And so a long time passed, and The Great Spirit gave each of the four races two stone tablets. Ours are kept at the Hopi Reservation in Arizona at thee Four Corners Area on Third Mesa. I talked to people of the black race, and their stone tablets are at the foot of Mount Kenya. They are kept by the Kukuyu Tribe. I was at an Indian spiritual gathering about 15 years ago. A medicine man from South Dakota put a beaded medicine wheel in the middle of the gathering.
It had four colors from the four directions; he asked the people, "Where is this from?" They said. "Probably Montana, or South Dakota, maybe
Saskatchewan." He said, "This is from Kenya." It was beaded just like ours, with the same colors.

The stones of the yellow race of people are kept by the Tibetans. If you went straight through the Hopi Reservation to thee other side of the world, you would come out in Tibet. The Tibetan word for sun is the Hopi word for moon, and the Hopi word for sun is the Tibetan word for moon.

The guardians of the traditions of the people of Europe are thee Swiss. In Switzerland, they still have a day when each family brings out it's mask. They still know the colors of the families, and they still know the symbols, some of them. Each of these four peoples happen to live in the mountains.

Each of the four races went to their directions and learned their teachings. It was in Newsweek not long ago that eight out of ten foods that people eat on the earth are developed here in the western hemisphere because that was our Guardianship--to learn the teachings of the earth and the things that grow from the earth. We were given a sacred handshake to show, when we came back together as sisters and brothers, that we still remember our teachings.

It was indicated on the stone tablets that the Hopi's had that the first sisters and brothers who would come back to them would come as turtles across the land. They would be human beings, but they would come as turtles. So when the time came close, the Hopi's were at a special village to welcome the turtles that would come across the land. They got up in the morning and looked out at the sunrise. They looked out across the desert, and they saw the Spanish conquistadors coming, covered with armor, like he turtles across the land. So this was them. So they went out to the Spanish man, and they extended their hand, hoping for the handshake. But into the hand the Spanish man dropped a trinket. And so word spread throughout North America that there was going to be a hard time, that maybe some of the brothers and sisters had forgotten the sacredness of all things and all the human beings were going to suffer for this on the earth.

So tribes began to send people to the mountains to have visions to try to figure out how they could survive. At that time there were 100,000 cities in the Mississippi Valley alone, called the mound civilization: cities built on great mounds. Those mounds are still there. They began to try to learn to live off the land because they knew a hard time was going to come. They began to send to send people to have visions to see how we could survive this time.
They were told in the prophecies that we should try to remind all the people that would come here of the sacredness of all things. If we could do that, then there would be peace on earth. But if we did not do that, if we had not come together as a human family, the Great Spirit would grab the earth with His hand and shake it.

The elders in the west coast prophesied that they would then begin to build a black ribbon. And on this black ribbon there would move a bug. And when you begin to see this bug moving on the land, that was the sign of the First Shaking of the Earth. The First Shaking of the Earth would be so violent that this bug would be shaken off the earth into the air and it would begin to move and fly in the air. And by the end of this shaking this bug will be in the air around the world. Behind it would be a trail of dirt and eventually the whole sky of the entire earth would become dirty from these trails of dirt, and this would cause diseases that would get more and more complicated. So the bug moving on the land, of course it's easy to see now. In 1908 the Model-T Ford was mass produced for the first time. So the elders knew the First Shaking of the Earth was about to come about--the First World War.

In the First World War the airplane came into wide usage for the first time. That was that bug moving in the sky. And so they knew something very important would happen. There would be an attempt to make peace on earth on the west coast of this land, and so the elders began to watch for this. They began to hear that there was going to be a League of Nations in San Francisco, so the elders gathered in Arizona around 1920 or so, and they wrote a letter to Woodrow Wilson. They asked if the Indian people could be included in the League of Nations. The United States Supreme Court had held that a reservation is a separate and semi-sovereign nation, not a part of the United States but protected by it. This became a concern because people didn't want the reservations to become more and more separate. They didn't want them to be considered nations. So they did not write back, and the Native people were left out of the League of Nations so that the circle was incomplete. In the League of Nations circle there was a southern door, the yellow people; but the eastern door was not attended. The elders knew that the peace would not come on the earth until the circle of humanity is complete, until all four colors sat in the circle and shared their teachings, then peace would come to earth.

So they knew things would happen. Things would speed up a little bit. There would be a cobweb built around the earth, and the people would talk across this cobweb. When this talking cobweb, the telephone, was built around the earth, a sign of life would appear on the east, but it would tilt and bring death (the swastika of the Nazis). It would come with the sun. But the sun itself would rise one day, not in the east but in the west (the rising sun of the Japanese Empire). So the elders said when you see the sun rising in the east, and you see the sign of life reversed and tilted in the east, you know that the Great Death is to come upon the earth, and now the Great Spirit will grab the earth again in His hand and shake it, and this shaking will be worse than the first. So the sign of life reversed and tilted, we call that the Swastika, and the rising sun in the east was the Rising Sun of Japan. These two symbols are carved in stone in Arizona. When the elders saw these
two flags, they knew that these were the signs that the earth was to be shaken again.
The worse misuse of the Guardianship of the fire is called the gourd of ashes. They say the gourd of ashes will fall from the air. It will make the people like blades of grass in the prairie fire, and things will not grow for many seasons. The atomic bomb, the gourd of ashes, it was the best kept secret in the history of the US. The elders wanted to speak about it in 1920.
They would have spoken of it and foretold its coming if they could have entered into the League of Nations. The elders tried to contact President Roosevelt to ask him not to use this gourd of ashes because it would have a great effect on the earth and eventually cause even greater destruction and a Third Shaking of the Earth, the Third World War. So they knew after the Second Shaking of the Earth when they saw the gourd of ashes fall from the sky, there would be an attempt to make peace on the other side of this land, and because the peace attempt on the west coast had failed, they would build a special house on the east coast of this Turtle Island, and all nations and peoples of the earth would come to this house, and it would be called the house of Mica, and it would shine like the mica on the desert shines. So the elders began to see they were building the United Nations and made out of glass that reflects like the mica on the desert so they knew this was the House of Mica, and all the peoples of the earth should go to it. So they met and talked about this. They said that in the 1920's they had written and they had not been responded to, so they said this time we'd better go to the front door of the House of Mica because things might get allot worse.
So the elders representing a number of tribes drove to New York City. when the United Nations opened, they went to the front door of the House of Mica and they said these words, "We represent the indigenous people of North America, and we wish to address the nations of the Earth. We're going to give you four days to consider whether or not we will be allowed to speak."
They retreated to one of the Six Nations Reserves in New York State, Four days later they came back, and I believe the nations of the earth heard that the Indians had come to the door. They voted to let the Indians in. They wanted to hear what they had to say. The United States of one of five nations of the United Nations with a veto power, and still they were concerned because this time the Native Sovereignty was even stronger. I believe they vetoed the entrance of the Native people. So then they knew other things would happen on the Earth. So they retreated to the Six Nations eserve, and they talked about this, and they said the time is really getting close now--1949. They said,"We're going to divide the United States into four sections, and each year we're going to have a gathering. We're going to call these the White Roots of Peace Gatherings." they began to have these around 1950.
They authorized certain people to speak in English for the first time about these prophecies.

One that I used to listen to many times, over and over, was Thomas Banyaca. He was authorized to speak in English about what was on the stone tablets, and he has dedicated his life to doing this. They began to tell about the gatherings, "You're going to see a time in your lifetime when the human beings are going to find the blueprint that makes us." They call that DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid. They said, "They're going to cut this blueprint." They call that now genetic splicing, and they said, "They're going to make new animals upon the earth, and they're going to think these are going to help us, and it's going to seem like they do help us. But maybe the grandchildren and great-grandchildren are going to suffer." The elders said a long time ago, "They will release these things, and they will use them." This is going to be released not too long from now. They are making new animals. The elders talked about this.
They said, "You will see new animals, and even the old animals will come back, animals that people thought had disappeared. They will find them here and there. They'll begin to reappear." They said,"You're going to see a time when the eagle will fly it's highest in the night, and it will land upon the moon. And at that time, many of the Native people will be sleeping," which symbolically means they have lost their teachings. We're at that time now. The Eagle has landed on the moon,1969.
When that spaceship landed, they sent back the message, "The Eagle has landed." Traditionally, Native people from clear up in the Inuit region have shared with us this prophecy, clear down to the Quechuas in South America. At this time your going to see that things will speed up, that people on the earth will move faster and faster. Grandchildren will not have time for grandparents. Parents will not have time for children. It will seem like time is going faster and faster. The elders advised us that, as things speed up, you yourself should slow down. The faster things go, the slower you go. Because there's going to come a time when the earth is going to be shaken a third time. The Great Spirit has shaken the earth two times: the First and Second World Wars to remind us that we are a human family, to remind us that we should have greeted each other as brothers and sisters. We had a chance after each shaking to come together in a circle that would have brought peace on earth, but we missed that. Tonight they were talking on the news about the sign for the Third Shaking of the Earth. They said they're going to build what the elders called the house in the sky. In the 1950's they talked about this: they will build a house throw it in the sky. When you see people living in the sky on a permanent basis, you will know the Great Spirit is about to grab the earth, this time not with one hand, but with both hands.
When this house is in the sky, the Great Spirit is going to shake the Earth a third time, and whoever dropped that gourd of ashes, upon them it is going to drop. They say at that time there will be villages in this land so great that when you stand in the villages you will not be able to see out, and in the prophecies these are called villages of stone, or prairies of stone. And they say the stone will grow up from the ground, and you will not be able to see beyond the village. At the center of each and every one of these villages will be Native people, and they will walk as hollow shells upon a prairie of stone. They said hollow shells, which means they will have lost any of their traditional understandings; they will be empty within. They said that after the Eagle lands on the moon, some of the people will begin to leave these prairies of stone and come home and take up some of the old ways and begin to make themselves reborn, because it's a new day. But many will not. And they said there's going to come a time when in the morning the sun is going to rise, and this village of stone will be there, and in the evening there would just be steam coming from the ground. They will be steam.
And in the center of many villages of stone, when they turn to steam, the Native people will turn to steam also because they never woke up and left the village. They say there's going to be the Third Shaking of the Earth. It's not going to be a good thing to see, but we will survive it. We will survive it. And when we survive it, there's going to be another attempt to make a circle of human beings on the earth. And this time the Native people will not have to petition to join but will be invited to enter the circle, and all four colors of the four directions will share their wisdom, and there will be a peace on earth. This is coming close.
The prophecies are always either/or. We could have come together way back in 1565, and we could have had a great civilization, but we didn't. Always along the path of these prophecies, we could have come together. We still could. If we could stop the racial and religious disharmony, we would not have to go through this third shaking. The elders say the chance of that is pretty slim. It seems to me like it's pretty slim too. But they say what we can do is we can cushion it so it won't be quite as bad. How do we do this? We do this by sharing the teaching that will reunite us.
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